Types and risk factors of gallstones. Gallstones are stones that form in the bile. Bile is a watery fluid produced by the liver cells that is essential for food digestion in the intestine, especially fat. Liver cells release bile they make into small canals within the liver.
Bile flow through the canals and into the collecting ducts in the liver larger (intrahepatic bile ducts). The bile then flows within the intrahepatic bile ducts exit the liver and into the extrahepatic bile ducts. First of all into the hepatic bile ducts, then into the common hepatic tract, and eventually into the common bile tract.
Concentrated bile is far more effective for digestion than that is not concentrated bile from the liver which goes directly into the small intestine. Timing of contraction of the gallbladder bile while eating to allow the gallbladder dar dense mix with food.
Causes and risk factors of gallstones
The exact cause is unknown. Possible causes are:
- bile contains too much cholesterol
- Bile contains bile salts are less
- perfect gallbladder does not contract
- blood disorders (sickle cell anemia).
The types of gallstones:
Cholesterol gallstones: cholesterol gallstones are made primarily of cholesterol. They are the type most common gallstones. Cholesterol is one of the compounds released by liver cells into bile. Cholesterol into bile expenditure is an important way in which the liver eliminates excess cholesterol from the body.
So that brings bile cholesterol, cholesterol must be dissolved in the bile. Cholesterol is a fat, however, and the bile is an aqueous or aqueous solution. In order to make the cholesterol soluble in bile, the liver also issued two cleaning materials (Detergents), bile acids and lecithin into the bile.
Cleaning materials (Detergents), the same as cleaning materials (Detergents) dishwasher, which dissolves the fatty cholesterol so that it can be carried by the bile through the ducts. If you spend too much cholesterol the liver to the bile acids and lecithin which she paid, some of the cholesterol is not soluble.
Similarly, if the liver does not release enough bile acids and lecithin, some of the cholesterol is not soluble. In both cases, cholesterol is not soluble stick together and form particles of cholesterol that grow in size and eventually form larger gallstones.
There are two other processes that promote cholesterol gallstone formation, although none of these two processes can lead to gallstones alone. The first is the formation and growth of the particles into the abnormally rapid cholesterol gallstones. So, with the same concentrations of cholesterol, bile acids and lecithin in their bile, patients with gallstones to form cholesterol particles faster than individuals without gallstones.
The second process that promotes the formation and growth of gallstones is gallbladder contraction and emptying are reduced which allows the bile in the gall bladder to sit for longer so that there is more time for cholesterol particles to form and grow.
Pigment gallstones: Gallstones are the type of pigment gallstones are the second most common. There are two types of pigment gallstones; black pigment gallstones, and brown pigment gallstones.
Pigment is formed of a residual waste from hemoglobin, a chemical that carries oxygen in red blood cells. Hemoglobin from red blood cells that destroy old converted into a chemical called bilirubin and released into the blood. Bilirubin is excreted by the liver. Liver modify and remove bilirubin bilirubin that has been modified into bile.
- Black gallstones: If there is too much bilirubin in the bile, bilirubin join other constituents in the bile. For example, calcium, forming pigment (called so because he had dark brown). Poorly soluble pigment in bile and, like cholesterol, it stuck together and form particles that grow in size and eventually form gallstones. Gallstones are formed in this way is called a black pigment gallstones because they are black and hard.
- Brown gallstones: If there is a reduction in the contraction of the gallbladder or obstruction of bile flow through the ducts, bacteria may rise from the duodenum into the bile ducts and gallbladder. The bacteria convert the bilirubin in the ducts and gallbladder, and bilirubin that has been revamped to join with calcium to form pigment. Pigment and then joined the fats in the bile (cholesterol and fatty acids from lecithin) to form particles that grow into gallstones. Types of gallstones is called a brown pigment gallstones because it is more brown than black. He is also softer than the black pigment gallstones.
Gallstones usually form in the gallbladder. Gallstones also may move / change in the bile. Gallstones are twice as common in women than in men and can occur at any age, but incidence increases with age. Diabetics have a higher risk of suffering from gallstones and other gallbladder problems. Excess weight is also a significant risk factor for gallstones.